The updated version of How Safe Is The Schoolhouse? An Analysis of State Seclusion and Restraint Laws and Policies, written by Jessica Butler, has been published by the Autism National Committee. The report is dated 3/30/2013 and is available at
The report finds that:
- Only 12 states by law limit restraint of all children to emergencies threatening physical danger for all children; 17, limit restraint of children with disabilities in this way. Only 9 states protect all children from non-emergency seclusion (1 by banning it entirely); only 15 protect children with disabilities from non-emergency seclusion. 33 states lack laws requiring that parents of all children be informed of restraint/seclusion; 22, lack them for children with disabilities.
- Restraints that impede breathing and threaten life are forbidden by law in only 18 states for all children; 25 states, for children with disabilities. Children locked in closets and rooms unobserved have been killed and injured, when staff are not watching them. But 29 states allow schools to seclude children with disabilities without requiring staff to continuously watch them; the number rises to 39 for all children. Mechanical restraints include chairs and other devices that children are locked into; duct tape and bungee cords, ties, rope, and other things used to restrain children; and other devices. Only 14 states ban mechanical restraint for all children; 18, for all children. Only 13 states ban dangerous chemical restraints for all children.
- In general, 17 states have statutes or regulations providing meaningful protections against restraint and seclusion for all children, 30 for children with disabilities. These have the force of law and must be obeyed. Even these states offer varying protections, with key safeguards present in some states and missing in others. In addition, 2 states have laws protecting against one procedure but not the other. 8 have very weak laws (e.g., Nebraska’s regulation instructs school districts to adopt any policy they choose and imposes no requirements whatsoever); and 12 have nonbinding, suggested guidelines that have no legal force and that are more easily changed by the State Department of Education.
- In December 2009, Congressman George Miller introduced the first national restraint/seclusion bill, and in 2011, Senator Harkin introduced a similar bill. Together, the Miller and Harkin bills have had a substantial impact, causing states to adopt and strengthen restraint/seclusion laws to incorporate several of their features. 14 states have either adopted new laws (statutes/regulations) or substantially overhauled existing laws to incorporate their requirements. For example, 11 incorporate the requirement that physical restraint may not be used unless there is an imminent danger of physical injury for children with disabilities, and 9 for all children. Since the Harkin bill was introduced, 3 states have added requirements that restraints not prevent a child from communicating that he/she is in medical distress (e.g. cannot breathe). Of the 20 students who died in the GAO report, at least 4 verbal children told staff that they could not breathe. Many children have disabilities that prevent them from verbally communicating.
Since the report was finished, two states acted last week. Arizona passed a law permitting seclusion for any reason as long as parents consent or for emergencies threatening physical harm without consent. A handful of states have such unlimited consent laws. AZ does not limit restraint. Oregon banned free-standing seclusion cells (boxes). It already has a comprehensive statute in place. Neither new action affects the findings above.
Seclusion and restraint are highly dangerous interventions that have led to death, injury, and trauma in children. The GAO collected at least 20 stories of children who died in restraint. Neither practice should be allowed when there is no emergency posing a danger to physical safety. With no single federal seclusion or restraint law, America’s 55 million school children are covered by a patchwork of state laws, regulations, nonbinding guidelines, and even utter silence.
Legislation on seclusion and restraint – the Keeping All Students Safe Act – is expected to be introduced in the 113th Congress by Representative George Miller (D-CA). Congressman Miller’s bill will protect all American schoolchildren from dangerous restraint and seclusion.